Atomic Facts & Figures

Iodine Facts

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Iodine
53I
Appearance
lustrous metallic gray, violet as a gas
General properties
Name, symbol, number iodine, I, 53
Pronunciation /ˈ.ədn/ eye-ə-dyn,
/ˈ.ədɨn/ eye-ə-dən,
or /ˈ.ədn/ eye-ə-deen
Metallic category halogen
Group, period,block 17, 5, p
Standard atomic weight 126.90447
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Electron shells of iodine (2, 8, 18, 18, 7)
History
Discovery Bernard Courtois (1811)
First isolation Bernard Courtois (1811)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (nearr.t.) 4.933 g·cm−3
Melting point 386.85 K, 113.7 °C, 236.66 °F
Boiling point 457.4 K, 184.3 °C, 363.7 °F
Triple point 386.65 K (113°C), 12.1 kPa
Critical point 819 K, 11.7 MPa
Heat of fusion (I2) 15.52 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (I2) 41.57 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (I2) 54.44 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (rhombic)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 260 282 309 342 381 457
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 7, 5, 3, 1, -1
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.66 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1008.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1845.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3180 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 198 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Iodine has a orthorhombic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 1.3×107Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 0.449 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
CAS registry number 7553-56-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of iodine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
123I syn 13 h ε, γ 0.16 123Te
124I syn 4.176 d ε - 124Te
125I syn 59.40 d ε - 125Te
127I 100% 127I is stable with 74 neutrons
129I trace 1.57×107 y β− 0.194 129Xe
131I syn 8.02070 d β−, γ 0.971 131Xe
135I syn 6.57 h β− - 135Xe

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